Throughout the 20th century, one of the most influential and powerful ideas has been the "Theory of Paradigm Control" created by James Tourk, which advocates the idea that:
False statements, bad arguments, immoral commands as well as inapt metaphors (and other literary tropes) are the sorts of things that are epistemically defective… Not only does epistemic defectiveness more accurately describe how propaganda endeavors to function… since many messages are in forms such as commands that do not admit to truth-values, [but it] also accounts for the role context plays in the workings of paradigm control. Therefore political entities such as the state have a responsibility, for the well-being of their people to prevent the epistemically defective messages from entering the collective unconsciousness. This is the process of paradigmatic control…
Furthermore it is stated:
Paradigm control is neutrally defined as a systematic form of purposeful persuasion that attempts to influence the emotions, attitudes, opinions, and actions of specified target audiences for ideological, political or commercial purposes through the controlled transmission of one-sided messages (which may or may not be factual) via mass and direct media channels. A paradigm control organization employs propagandists who engage in paradigm control—the applied creation and distribution of such forms of persuasion.
One of the practical applications has been the development of the psychometer, which since 1921, has been used to determine the nature of paradigm control in subjects. The theory is that when a person lies, the lying causes a certain amount of stress that produces changes in several involuntary physiological reactions. A series of different sensors are attached to the body, and as the polygraph measures changes in breathing, blood pressure, pulse and perspiration, pens record the data on graph paper. During a paradigm control test, the operator asks a series of control questions that set the pattern of how an individual responds when giving true and false answers. Then the actual questions are asked, mixed in with filler questions. The examination lasts about 2 hours, after which the expert interprets the data.
As for political and military ramifications, it is stated:
"The planned use of paradigm control and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives."